|I early||Below 0.59||Below 6.0|
|I late||Above 0.59||Below 0.15||Below 6.0|
|II early||Above 0.59||Above 0.15||Below 6.0|
|II late||Above 0.59||Above 6.0|
A check of 29 quasars with absorption redshifts listed in a 1972 compilation by Burbidge and O'Dell 251 shows that all of these objects are in compliance with the foregoing rules when the assignment to classifications is made on the basis that has been specified. Here, then, we have a significant confirmation of the theoretical description of the conditions under which the absorption redshifts occur.
It was noted earlier that there would be a further advantage in being able to distinguish the two classes of radio-emitting quasars by color alone without having to consider the magnitude of the radio emission. As indicated in Fig.28, which is a combination of Fig.26 and 27, with the B-V index substituted for the radio flux, this is almost accomplished by the resulting two-color diagram. There is some uncertainty along the dividing line at the 0.15 B-V index, and there is one deviant object, 3C 280.1, which has a B-V index of 0.13, although its redshift far exceeds the Class I limit. Otherwise, the two classes of quasars are located in separate portions of the diagram, as in Fig.26 and 27. The deviation of 3C 280.1 from the normal range of B-V indexes is probably due to the same cause as the deviation of this quasar from the normal radio pattern, as shown in Table Vll, Chapter 22.
Thus far we have been looking at the color indexes and radio flux as means of differentiating between the various classes of quasars. Now we will want to examine the significance of the changes that take place in these quantities during the evolution of the quasars. The magnitudes of all of the properties that we are now considering undergo evolutionary changes. Thus any one of them can serve as an indicator of quasar age. Obviously, however, the properties that change most uniformly with time are the best indicators, and on this basis we may consider the radio flux in Fig.26 and 27 as indicating the quasar age. These diagrams thus show how the quasar temperature (U-B) varies with age (R.F.). We now find that the B-V index follows approximately the same trend as the radio flux, which means that this index is also an indicator of age, and can be substituted for the radio flux in the diagrams.
The U-B indexes of the earliest Class I quasars fall in the range from about -0.40 to -0.59. As these quasars age, the index moves almost horizontally to the vicinity of B-V = +0.15, and then turns sharply downward on the diagram (toward more negative values) as the radio-quiet zone is approached. The B-V index of the earliest Class I quasar in the sample under examination is 0.60. This index decreases as the quasar ages, reaching positive or negative values near zero at the radio-quiet boundary. The U-B indexes of the Class II quasars range from -0.59 to about -1.00, with no apparent systematic variation. The corresponding B-V indexes for most of the Class II quasars with relatively low redshifts (below 0.750) are in the neighborhood of +0.20. Beyond 0.750 the index increases, and the maximum values around 0.60 or 0 70 are reached near the 1.00 distance. This peak is followed by a decrease to a level at which most values are comparable to those of the early members of this class.
While the actual mathematical relations between the internal activity of the quasars and their color indexes have not yet been examined in the light of the Reciprocal System of theory, the evolutionary pattern followed by the values of these indexes, as described in the preceding paragraph, shows a definite qualitative correlation with the changes that theoretically take place in the generation and dissipation of energy. In Class I the initial energy is high, but it gradually subsides, as no continuing source of large amounts of energy is available to these objects. Both color indexes respond to this change by moving toward more negative values as the quasars age. In Class II the initial activity develops slowly, as it originates from many small events rather than from one big event, and the Class II quasars do not reach the high temperatures that are characteristic of the early Class I objects.
The lowest (least negative) U-B values in Class II are in the neighborhood of the dividing line at -0.59, and the full range extends to about -1.00. The five radio-quiet quasars in the Burbidge tables for which color indexes are given have U-B indexes in the range from -0.78 to -0.90. It follows that only those quasars with U-B indexes between about -0.75 and the -0.59 limit can be regarded as having a temperature increment due to the secondary explosions, and even in this group, which includes about 40 percent of the total number of Class II Quasars, the increment is not large There is no systematic change with age in the U-B indexes of these Class II objects. This is understandable on the basis of the conclusion that this index is related to the temperature, as the temperature variations in Class II are due to events that can take place at any time during the Class II stage of quasar existence.
The pattern of values of the B-V index that was previously described indicates that the processes, which determine the magnitude of this index, are increasing in strength throughout the Class II stage. The specific nature of these processes has not yet been established but obviously they are aspects of the motion of the quasar constituents, and for the present we can use the very general term internal activity in referring to them. As the quasar distance increases, the average age of the observable quasars rises, inasmuch as the age range is continually being extended. This increase in age is accompanied by a corresponding increase in internal activity, and, below a quasar distance of 1.00, by an increase in the B-V index. As already mentioned, this index decreases beyond 1.00 distance, probably because of a decrease in the intensity of the internal activity due to the dimensional distribution of the various properties of the quasars that occurs in this distance range.
Inasmuch as the concentration of energetic material in the interior of the giant spheroidal galaxy from which a quasar was ejected was built up gradually over a long period of time, the isotopic adjustments taking place in this material at the time of the ejection are mainly of the long-lived types. Thus the decrease in radio emission and internal activity in the early quasar stage should be quite gradual. The temperature, on the other hand, is raised to a very high level by the explosion, and can be expected to take a very sharp initial drop. We would normally expect, therefore, that the early Class I stage would begin with an exponential decrease in the U-B index (temperature) as a function of the B-V index (age). But this is not at all what Fig.28 indicates. There is little, if any, decrease in the U-B index in the early Class I stage. Let us see, then, if we can account for the observed situation.
One obvious possibility is that the rapid decrease in the temperature precedes the earliest quasar stage. On this basis, the temperature of the newly ejected galactic fragment drops rapidly to a certain level, which we can identify as that of the earliest Class I quasars (U-B = -0.40 + 0.10), remains at this level to about B-V = +0.15, and then resumes a rapid drop to a minimum level near 1.00. On first consideration, this may appear to be another of the combinations of ten percent fact and ninety percent speculation that are so common in the relatively uncharted areas of physics and astronomy. However, there actually is in existence a class of objects, not currently identified as quasars, that occupies the position in this U-B vs. B-V diagram in which the theoretical very early group of quasars would fall if the foregoing explanation of the nature of the early evolutionary pattern is correct.
Like the quasars, these objects are abnormally small, very powerful extragalactic bodies. Their existence was first recognized when the radiation from the variable star BL Lacertae was found to have some very peculiar properties. Several dozen similar objects have since been located. Because their properties are in some respects unique, they have been placed in a new astronomical category. However, no consensus has been reached on a name for these objects. As matters now stand, we have a choice between BL Lac objects, lacertids, and lacertae. The latter term will be used in the discussion that follows.
Most of the differences between the lacertae and the quasars are merely matters of degree, as would be expected if the lacertae are very young quasars. For instance, the evidence of association with giant galaxies is much stronger than in the case of the quasars. Joseph S. Miller describes the results of a recent (1981) investigation in which both lacertae and quasars were examined as follows:
We conclude that the data are consistent with all BL Lac objects being located in luminous giant elliptical galaxies . . . No galaxy components were definitely detected for any of the QSOs in this study.252
These observations are consistent with the status of the lacertae as pre-quasar explosion products. The observed galaxies are the giants—spheroidal, in the terminology of this work—from which these objects were ejected. The parent galaxies are more likely to be observed while the explosion products are still in the lacertae stage immediately following ejection because these products have not yet had time to travel very far. By the time the quasar stage is reached the ejected fragment has moved farther away from the galaxy of origin, and the association between the two is not necessarily evident.
All known lacertae are radio sources, whereas many, perhaps most, quasars are radio quiet. Here again, the difference is accounted for if we accept the conclusion that the lacertae are the initial products of the galactic explosions; that is, they are in the violent post-ejection stage. This conclusion is supported by the observation that The BL Lac type objects appear to be very closely related to violently variable QSO's like 3C 279 and 3C 345 (two quasars of Early Class I). 253 The reason for the lack of radio-quiet lacertae is then evident. The violent internal activity that produces the radiation at radio frequencies continues throughout both the lacertae and Early Class I stages.
It has been found that the bright lacertae are not associated with extended radio sources,254 whereas most quasars of the early classes do show such an association. Here, again, extreme youth is the explanation. The extended sources have simply not had time to develop.
The radiation from the lacertae includes optical, radio, and infrared components, all of which are to be expected from young explosion products moving at upper range speeds. No x-ray radiation has been detected. This, too, is consistent with the theoretical evolutionary status of the lacertae. There are no x-rays in very young explosion products, as we saw earlier in the case of the supernovae. Objects that lose energy after having been accelerated to upper range speed levels emit X-rays. By the time the ejected fragment reaches the quasar stage, some loss of energy has taken place, and production of x-rays has begun.
A clear picture of the relation between lacertae and quasars is provided by the respective colors. To illustrate this point, the colors of a representative group of lacertae 254 have been added to Fig.28, and the enlarged diagram is shown in Fig.29. Quite clearly, the positions of the lacertae in this two-color diagram are fully consistent with the theoretical conclusion that these objects are the initial products of the galactic explosions, and precede the early Class I quasars in the evolutionary development of the ejecta from the explosions. Except for a few objects that have penetrated into the Class II region of the diagram, the evolutionary path of the lacertae joins that of the Class I quasars in a smooth transition, and the combined path follows the pattern that, as explained earlier, we would expect the galactic explosion products to follow in their early stages, on the basis of the theory that we have developed. One more of the distinctive characteristics of the lacertae remains to be examined.
The most intriguing difference between quasars and lacertae is that the quasars have strong emission lines in their spectra that the lacertae lack. The reason for this is not yet understood.255 (Disney and Veron)
This, too, is readily explained on the basis of the theoretical description of the immediate post-ejection conditions. The principle that plays the most important role in this situation has been encountered repeatedly in connection with other phenomena discussed in the preceding pages, but it is one of those items that is so foreign to existing physical thought that it may be a source of conceptual difficulty for many readers. A more detailed discussion is therefore appropriate at this point, where the relevant observational evidence is more extensive than in the applications considered earlier.
For reasons already specified, the radioactivity and the accompanying emission of radiation at radio frequencies decline slowly throughout the Class I quasar stages. This decline is illustrated in Fig.30 Here the absolute radio emissions are plotted against the U-B color indexes (indicative of the temperature) in steps 0.02 of the index. This procedure results in some values that are averages of two or three individual emissions, thereby smoothing the resulting curve to some extent. The circled points indicate the average values. Those not so identified are single values. As might be expected from the nature of the radio emission process, there are a few widely divergent values, but the general trend is clearly represented by a line such as that in the diagram, which conforms to the theoretical expectation.
The optical situation is more complicated because the stellar component speeds that are produced by acquisition of a part of the explosion energy are much lower than those of the gas and dust particles that supplied the original explosion energy. These stellar components therefore return to the speed range below unity during the evolution of the Class I quasars. The effect on the optical emission is shown in Fig.31, which is similar to Fig.30, with the absolute optical luminosities substituted for the radio emissions. (The methods of calculating the absolute values of both the optical and the radio emissions will be explained in Chapter 25.) Here we see that the luminosity remains nearly constant in the initial range, up to about U-B = - 0.50. It then begins a rapid rise to a point in the neighborhood of -0.59. At this point the emission drops by one half. During the late Class I stage, which follows, there is a moderately fast decrease to a level below -0.05 at the point of entry into the radio-quiet zone.
Since the stellar component speeds that are primarily responsible for the magnitude of the optical luminosity are subject to the same conditions that apply to the radio emission; that is, a gradual decay of the effects of the explosive ejection. the peak in the luminosity curve is somewhat surprising on first consideration. But, in fact' two different processes are involved. The isotopic adjustments that produce the radio emissions decrease gradually in intensity as more and more of them are completed. The optical emission is a function of the temperature; that is, of the speeds of the component particles. In the low speed range with which we are all familiar, the rate of emission of radiation increases with the component speeds (the temperature). It might seem that a still further increase in the speed would lead to a still greater rate of emission. But in the universe of motion directions are reversed at the unit level. Consequently, the same factors that cause the radiation to increase as the component speeds approach unity from lower levels also operate to increase the radiation as unit speed is approached from the higher levels. It follows that the radiation is at a maximum at the unit level, and decreases in both directions.
Applying this principle to the Class I quasars, we see that in the U-B range as far as -0.45, the component speeds are nearly constant as they slowly approach their maximum, and begin to decrease. Then the continued radiation losses with no comparable replacements accelerate the rate of decrease, reaching a maximum at the unit speed level. During this interval, while the speeds are still above unity, the decrease in speeds results in an increase in the rate of emission, reaching a peak at unit speed. As the diagram indicates, this peak coincides with the dividing line between classes I and 11 at U-B = -0.59. Beyond this point the speed drops into the range below unity, the range in which a decrease in temperature results in a decrease in the radiation. Like gravitation, the radiation process is operative in both of the active dimensions of the intermediate region. Half of the radiation is therefore eliminated at the unit speed level.
The lack of emission lines in the spectra of the lacertae is another result of this radiation pattern. The immediate post-explosion speeds of the gaseous component of the explosion products are very high, probably close to the two unit level. As brought out in Chapter15, this is the zero for motion in time, and the physical condition of an aggregate at this temperature is similar to that of an aggregate at a temperature near the zero of motion in space. The explanation of the lack of emission lines, then, is that the temperatures of the gases in the lacertae are too high to produce a line spectrum. At these extremely high temperatures (low inverse temperatures) the aggregate is in a condition in time that is analogous to a solid structure in space, and like the latter it radiates with a continuous spectrum. This is another example of the same phenomenon that we noted in Chapter16 in connection with the continuum emission from the Crab Nebula. By the time the quasar stage is reached, the temperature has dropped enough to give the aggregate the normal characteristics of a gas, including a line spectrum.
It was evident from the time of the earliest studies of the different classes of quasars, reported in Quasars and Pulsars, that the -0.59 value of the U-B index marks some kind of a physical division, and this was one of the criteria on which the classification of the quasars in that publication was set up. It can now be seen that the -0.59 U-B level corresponds to unit temperature. The fact that the evolutionary path of the Class I quasars (including the lacertae) contains a horizontal section, rather than decreasing somewhat uniformly from the initial to the final state, as might be expected where there is no source of replacement for the energy that is being lost by radiation, is explained by the transition from two-dimensional to one-dimensional motion. The energy of the second dimension of motion in the intermediate speed range is analogous to the heats of fusion and vaporization. When the change to one-dimensional motion takes place, the energy of motion in the other dimension becomes available to maintain the temperature, and the U-B index, at a constant level for a time before the decreasing trend is resumed.
Incorporation of the lacertae into the path of development now completes the evolutionary picture of the Class I explosion products from the time they are ejected from the galaxy of origin to their entry into the radio-quiet stage. Some of these objects may disappear during that stage, for reasons that will be explained in the next chapter. The remainder eventually undergo secondary explosions and attain the Class II status. There is no systematic relation between the temperature and age in Class II, because both the time at which the secondary explosions occur and their magnitude are subject to major variations. Each individual Class II quasar does, however, follow a course that eventually brings it to the point where it crosses the sector boundary and disappears.
There are many pitfalls in the way of anyone who attempts to follow a long chain of reasoning from broad general principles to specific details, and since this is an initial effort at applying the Reciprocal System of theory to the internal structural features of the quasars, it must be conceded that modification of some of the conclusions that have here been reached is likely to be necessary as observational knowledge continues to accumulate. and further advances in theoretical understanding are made in related areas. However, the general picture of the quasar structure and evolution derived from theory corresponds so closely with the information now at hand that there seems little reason to doubt its validity, particularly since that picture was developed easily and naturally from the same premises on which the earlier conclusions regarding the origin and nature of the quasars were based.
It is especially significant that nothing new is required to explain either the existence or the properties of the quasars (including the lacertae). Of course, nothing new can be put into a purely deductive theory of this kind. Introduction of additional hypotheses or ad hoc assumptions of the kind normally employed in the adjustment of theories to fit new observations is excluded by the basic design of the theoretical system, which calls for deriving all conclusions from a single set of premises, and from these only. Some new principles and hitherto unknown phenomena are certain to be revealed by any new theoretical development of this magnitude, and many such discoveries have, in fact, been made in the course of the theoretical studies thus far undertaken. Such items as those utilized in the foregoing applications of the theory to the various aspects of the quasar situation -the status of all physical phenomena as more or less complex relations between space and time, the inversion of these relations at unit levels, the role of time as equivalent space, and the asymmetric transmission of physical effects across unit boundaries - are all new to science. But these are not peculiar to the quasars; they are general principles, immediate and direct consequences of the basic postulates, the kind of features that distinguish the universe of motion from the conventional universe of matter, and they were discovered and employed in a variety of applications decades before the quasar study was undertaken. All of the novel principles deduced from theory and utilized in this work were explicitly stated in the initial presentation of the Reciprocal System of theory in the first edition of this work, published in 1959, years before the quasars were discovered.
Furthermore, many of the consequences of these general principles, in the form of physical phenomena and relations, that are now seen to play important parts in explaining the origin and evolution of the quasars were likewise pointed out in detail in that 1959 publication, four years before Maarten Schmidt measured the redshift that ushered in the era of the quasar mystery. The status of stellar aggregates as structures in positional equilibrium, which permits the building up of internal pressures in the galaxies, and the ejection of fragments, the existence of two distinct divisions of the explosion products, ejected in opposite directions, one moving at normal speed and the other moving at a speed in excess of that of light; the reduction in the apparent spatial size of aggregates whose components move at upper range speeds; the generation of large amounts of radiation at radio wavelengths from the explosion products; and the eventual disappearance of the ultra high speed material; were all derived from theory and discussed in the published work, not only long before the discovery of the quasars but years before any definite evidence of the galactic explosions that produce the quasars was found.