HUBBLE’S LAW AND THE RECIPROCAL SYSTEM The conceptual basis for Hubble’s Law in the Reciprocal System has been discussed by Mr. Larson in a number of his works. This paper will present some additional mathematical details. Hubble’s Law is commonly written as
where v is the velocity of a distant galaxy, in km/sec, r is the distance to the galaxy, in Mpc, and H is Hubble’s constant, in km sec^{1} Mpc^{1} . In differential form, the equation is
However, as shown in Larson’s The Structure of the Physical Universe,¹ the recession starts at the gravitational limit of our galaxy, denoted by r_{o}. Thus the correct expression is
Clearly the velocity is zero when r = r_{o}. The equation is a first order linear differential equation² and can be easily solved for r. The result if
where r_{i} is the initial position of the external galaxy. Of great interest is the determination of Hubble’s constant from first principles. According to the Structure, the ratio of effective to total gravitational units is 1/156.4444. At the distance a galaxy recedes at the speed of light, the effective gravitational force drops betow the value of unity and vanishes. Thus
(equation 159 of Structure). Solving for r_{1}, the limiting distance, yields
(equation 160 of Structure). Putting this vatue of r_{1} in Hubble’s Law, one can solve for the constant:
where c is the velocity of light. The value of the constant thus depends on the value of the mass of the Galaxy, M_{G}. According to reference three, this is
With this value the constant is
However, according to Sandage the value of H is
This implies that the actual value of the mass of the Galaxy is
or 2.33 times that estimated. It seems to me that Hubble’s constant has been more accurately determined than the mass of the Galaxy. Thus the analysis leads to the conclusion that the mass of our Galaxy is greater than supposed—probably because of a white dwarf galactic core that still remains difficult to observe. References
