PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOMAGNETIZATION
Introduction: the Reciprocal System vs. Present Theory
Consider a group of atoms in an electric field and bombarded with ultra-violet photons or a group of atoms in a magnetic field and bombarded with radio photons. What happens? Two theories exist that can give an answer: Quantum Mechanics and the Reciprocal system. Both are quantized, but the first is a matter-structure theory, whereas the second is a motion-process theory. Quantum Mechanics considers atoms to consist of various subatoms which have intrinsic charge, magnetic moment, and angular momentum; the atoms charge, moment, and momentum are derived from that of its subatoms. The Reciprocal system views atoms as composed of two photons, each having rotational motion in three dimensions; the atom has no intrinsic electric charge or magnetic momentelectric and magnetic effects result from additions of rotational vibratory motions to the base rotational motions.
Quantum Mechanics explanation of electric ionization is that previously 0existing charged particles, the protons and electrons, are separated; the Reciprocal Systems explanation is that the positive and negative charges 0are created in the process, and thus have no prior existence. Quantum Mechanics explanation of the magnetic resonance experiments is that the experimenters have found intrinsic magnetic moments of nuclei; the Reciprocal Systems explanation is that the experimenters have induced temporary magnetic charges in their material. Quantitative details of both theories will now be examined. (Full comprehension of this paper requires previous reading of two of D. B. Larsons books, Refs. 1 and 2, and one of my papers, Ref. 3.)
1. Present theory.
According to present thought, the electric charge is unanalyzable and undefined, except operationally. Either a particle has or does not have an intrinsic electric chargethere is no possibility of ionizing an uncharged subatom.
Present photoelectric theory states that, upon absorption of a sufficiently energetic photon, a pre-existing charged electron is ejected from its atom to move in an external circuit. [4,5] The energy necessary to tear 0the electron loose is called the work function of the material. No commonly accepted equation for the work function, based on Quantum Mechanics, exists.
2. Reciprocal System
For details of subatom and atom motions, see Refs. 1, 2, and 3. In the Reciprocal System, electric charge is not an intrinsic feature of a subatom; rather, charges may be created or destroyed, not necessarily in pairs, and 0thus charge conservation in a process does not always hold true. However, total motion displacement is conserved in each process.
As with all other phenomena in the Reciprocal system, electric charge is a motion, in this case a simple harmonic rotational vibration, as shown in Figure I.
FIGURE I: ELECTRIC CHARGE
An equation for this motion will now be derived. Let q be the rotation angle in radians,n be its frequency in Hz, and t be the time in seconds. From the figure, the amplitude of the motion isp radians and the angular distance traveled each cycle is 4p radians. Hence the equation is
As shown in a previous paper of mine , a negative electric charge has the frequency
where R is the Rydberg frequency (3.288 * 1015 Hz).
Electrons exist within matter, but not as intrinsic features of atoms. 0Also, these electrons are ordinarily uncharged. To travel outside of matter 0the electrons must become charged or ionized. The energy for the charge and 0the kinetic energy of the charged electron come from absorption of a photon, 0thus producing the photoelectric effect. A rigorous equation for this 0effect, slightly modified from Ref. 6, can now be given. Let
h = Plancks constant phot.
The equation for the electrons kinetic energy outside of matter is then
According to the Reciprocal System the work function is the energy necessary to charge a uncharged electron.Since the rotational vibration is scalar, like the linear vibration, Plancks law holds for electric charges 0as well as for photons:
Note: any observed values of work function less than 2.17 eV emply previous electron energy, Uk). The value of EI,e given in (4) is modified by the environment of the electron, i.e., by the atom in which it currently exists. The electrons charge may be in the same dimension as one of the atoms magnetic rotations or in the same dimension as the electric rotation. In the Reciprocal system, charge is energy, t/s, the inverse of velocity. The atoms magnetic rotation velocity is vmag, its electric rotation velocity is v; the inverse of these in natural units is c/vmag and c/velec , where c is the speed of light. If the atom has only one electric time displacement unit (velec= 1/2c), the ionization energy of the electron is not increased, hence a 1 must be subtracted from c/velec. Finally, the atomic motions take place in the time region, whereas we want the energy as measured in the time-space regionso the square root of the inverse velocity expressions 0must be taken. Thus
These equations, theoretically derived, are nearly identical to the empirical equation given by Larson in Ref 1 (p. 118), eq. (142)). The set of 0values of Wo. is
Table I compares the theoretical results with those observed.
WORK FUNCTION AND IONIZATION ENERGY
The agreement is excellent (the correlation coefficient rcorr = .964).
As discussed by Ref. 7, the number of electrons emitted per incident pho-ton depends on both the nature of the emitter and the frequency of the incident radiation.At frequencies lower than that at which maximum yield is obtained, reflectivity of incident photons is so high that only a few photons take part in the emission process.At frequencies higher than that at which maximum yield is obtained, the photons penetrate to such a depth that the electrons, newly charged at that depth, lose too much energy in coming to the surface.
Of the remaining subatoms only the positron, proton and H can take an electric charge.As shown in Ref 3, a positive electric charge has the frequency
*Asterisk denotes entry of rotation into second space-time unit in the
4a and 4b groups; also where value 3 appears in magnetic rotation, this
is the inverse of actual rotation. Values of c/vmag'
The ionization energy of a free positron or proton (not including force-coupling effects) is then
Now consider the ionization of the intermediate particle, H. Here everything is unity: H has one natural unit of primary mass and one unit of electric space displacement; one positive charge is created and one negative charge. So the required photon energy must also be unity by the Principle *Asterisk denotes entry of rotation into second space-time unit in the 4A and 4B groups; also where value 3 appears in magnetic rotation, this is the inverse of actual rotation. Values of c/vmag, c/velec., and Wo obs. are taken from Table CIX of Ref. 1. of Equivalence (see Ref. 1, p. 21):
1. Present Theory
In present theory, ionization is thought to be the ejection of an elec-tron from its orbital, leaving a net positive charge on the atom. No generally accepted equation has been developed to calculate the energy of ionization from Quantum Mechanics.One might expect the ionization energy to be practically the same as the work function but they are not.Indeed, there is no evidence that matter becomes ionized in the photoelectric effect.
Gas and liquid ionization is currently thought to be the break-up of previously existing oppositely-charged units.
2. Reciprocal System
In the photoelectric effect, only charged electrons are created, not charged atoms.But generally in atomic ionization both positive and negative electric charges are created (they do not exist previously).Where negative ions can form, as with the electronegative elements, they do so. But usually negatively-charged electrons serve as the second component of the force couple creating the charges. Thus in most cases a positively-charged ion and a negatively-charged electron are the results of ionization. So, rather than the ionization energy being the binding energy of an elec-tron to a nucleus, it is the energy required to create two charges, one 1 -positive and one negative.
Equation (5) gave the energy necessary to create a negative charge on an electron. From mechanical considerations it is obvious that the energy necessary to create a positive-negative charge pair is twice that needed to create the negative charge on the electron.Hence for the first ionization level the energy is
The set of values of EI,atom is
Table I compares calculated values with observed values of ionization . 0Agreement is very good. (Avg. Wo calc. =
Individual discrepancies are most likely due to experimental error.)
Ordinarily, solids are not ionized; the resulting forces would overcome the cohesive energy and break apart the solid.Liquids and gases are more readily ionized, with the energy often being supplied by photons.An electric field is of course necessary to prevent the charges from recombining. For a good discussion of liquid ionization, see Ref. 1.
Gaseous ionization depends on both electric field strength and gas pressure. An equation for the saturation electric field will now be derived. Let
I = primary current (ions created by photons/time)
Ephot./t = photon energy absorbed per unit time
EI. = ionization energy
€f. = electric field strength
€fnat.= natural unit of electric field strength
P = gas pressure Pnat. = natural unit of pressure
The equation for the primary ion current is then
per time t will be created. For a fixed energy input, I can be increased either by 0increasing €f. or decreasing P until
Solving for €f we have
With €fnat. = 2.04133 * 1016 v/m and Pnat. = 1.5539 * 107 atm.
and letting P = 1 * 10-5 atm., then
The newly created ions and charged electrons can themselves cause further ionization, which is called secondary ionization.
The reverse of ionization is the addition of a negatively charged electron to a singly charged positive ion, which results in a neutral atom. Thus the electron affinity of a singly charged positive ion is just the negative of the ionization energy of the corresponding neutral atom. Where current theory gets into difficulty is in understanding the electron affinity of neutral atoms. According to the Reciprocal System, the electron loses its charge upon absorption in matter, resulting in a reverse photoelectric effect.
1. Present Theory
According to present thought, the magnetic resonance experiments detect the magnetic moments intrinsic to subatoms and atoms (nuclei).The magnetic moment is considered to result from the angular spin of the electric charge of a particle.It is given in units of the Bohr magneton or the nuclear magneton, as derived from Diracs theory.
A number of problems exist with this theory.The neutron has a magnetic moment, but no electric charge. Pions and alpha particles do have electric charges but no magnetic moment; present theory claims that these particles have zero spin but that seems equally strange.The magnetic moment of the proton has been obtained from experiments with ice and water; thus the magnetic moment could actually be that of H itself, regardless of what theory says.The magnetic moment of the anti-proton has been found not to equal the magnetic moment of the proton (or rather, H1 ).
More fundamentally, the value of the magnetic moment is not measured + directly; it is inferred from the data. To see this, let
no= resonant photon frequency
The equation (from Ref. 10) is
The energy hno and field B are measured, L is inferred from other data (usually spectroscopic), and then is calculated. If L is bogus, then µ is bogus. All that the experiments tell us is that for a given B there exists a certain photon frequency at which great amounts of energy are absorbed by he sub-atoms and atoms. The conclusion that the relation between hno and B is µ /L is purely hypothetical.
2. Reciprocal System
My interpretation of the magnetic resonance experiments, on the basis of the Reciprocal System, is radically different.
Here the sub-atoms and atoms have no intrinsic magnetic moments or magnetic charges. (Note: the isotopic charges in atoms cancel the magnetic effect of the magnetic charges of the neutrinos contained within). But under certain circumstances, such as in the magnetic resonance experiments, temporary magnetic charges can be induced. A magnetic charge is a rotational vibration of one of the inner magnetic rotations of the sub-atom or atom. As given in Ref. 3, the vibrational frequency of a unit magnetic charge is
The required energy to produce this vibration depends on the environment: the magnetic field and the velocity of the principal or subordinate magnetic rotation which is modified by the charge. The resulting equation is related to, but different from, the equation for energy of electric ionization, eq. (5). In the Reciprocal system, magnetic effects are the square of electric effectsso the square root of eq. (5) is eliminated. Also, as in the equations for force and distance in the Reciprocal System, the effect of the magnetic velocity is inverse to that of the electric velocity. Thus, instead of the energy being proportional to c/vmag., the energy is proportional to vmag./c. The complete
Larson  has previously identified magnetic susceptibility as proportional to vmag./c. This provides additional support for that term in the above equation.
FIGURE II: MAGNETIC CHARGE
As shown in Figure II, the sole difference between a magnetic charge and an electric charge is that the magnetic charge is an electric charge that is given an extra angular spin by either the subordinate magnetic rotation or the electric rotation (depending on whether the charge is placed on the principal or subordinate magnetic rotation).
If no magnetic field is present, and the photons are not reflected, the photon energy is simply transformed to thermal energy of the particle. For a given magnetic field B,no can be calculated for each kind of sub-atom and atom.As discussed in Ref. 3, vmag./c can take on the following values:
Setting B equal to 1 Tesla and knowing that Bnat = 6.813*107 Tesla, the following resonance frequencies are obtained:
The calculation assumes that no other energy is present that can be utilized in the creation of the magnetic charge.Unfortunately, magnetic resonance experiments have been done at room temperature rather than at temperatures close to degrees K, so the absorption of thermal energy is a definite possibility.
Nearly all atoms have magnetic resonance frequencies at or below 15.6 MHz (with B = 1 Tesla), in accord with eq.(14). But the intermediate parti- cles, the neutron and H ,have higher observed frequencies,29.16 MHz and 42,57 MHz, respectively. One theoretical explanation is that these particles require multiple magnetic charges if they are to have any at all.The neutron is comprised of two rotational systems:a proton rotational system and a cosmic neutrino rotational system. In terms of total rotational speed (in natural units) the notation is
(See refs. 1 and 3 for details). Suppose each rotational system takes a magnetic charge on its subordinate magnetic rotation. For the proton rotational system, the energy required is
For the cosmic neutrino rotation (which takes an inverse charge) the energy required is
h * (2R/p ) * 2 * (B/Bnat.)
The combined energy is
h * (2R/p ) * (B/Bnat.)
and the resonance frequency is 30.70 MHz (for B and Bnat.) as before. The small discrepancy between the observed and cal- culated values may be due to the absorption of thermal energy.
The notation for H1 is
In this case, though, each rotational system apparently takes two charges, so that the frequency is 3R/ rather than 2R/ . The energy required is then
giving a resonance frequency of 46.05 MHz. Again the discrepancy between that observed and that calculated may be due to the utilization of thermal energy.
Both the real proton and anti-proton (inverse proton) and the material and cosmic neutrinos and the material and cosmic massless neutrons should have resonance frequencies of 15.36 MHz, unless they take multiple charges.
The electron and positron have no subordinate magnetic displacements at all and thus cannot take magnetic charges. All magnetic effects of these particles (and also the muon), whether uncharged or charged, result from their being in translational motion. To quote Larson :
Particles heavier than the electron and positron would show a similar magnetic effect if they could be accelerated to the same high velocities.
1. Present Theory
Present theory regards the magnetic moment of nuclei to result from a combination of the moments of its constituent sub-atoms. Even-even nuclei are regarded as having zero net spin and thus zero moment. According to Segres account of current theory , adding a neutron to an even-even nucleus is supposed to yield (* + 1/2)[ -3.826/(2* + 1)] nuclear magnetons for the magnetic moment, where* is the spin angular momentum of the added neutron; subtracting a neutron is supposed to yield (* - 1/2)[3.826/(2* +1)] nuclear magnetons. Adding a proton is supposed to yield (* + 1/2)[1+ 4.586/(2* +1)] nuclear magnetons, whereas subtracting a proton is supposed to yield (* - 1/2)[1-4.586/2 *+ 1)] nuclear magnetons. These expressions do bracket the data, as Segre points out, but that is all: they do not work in detailed application.
The sign given for the moment is an inference, not a result from experiment (which measures only photon energy and magnetic field strength at resonance). In present theory, both the magnetic moment and angular spin are vectors.If they are aligned the magnetic moment is said to be positive; if anti-aligned, negative.
2. Reciprocal System
In the Reciprocal System all basic motions including the electric and magnetic charges are scalar. In addition, the magnetic charge is intrinsically dipolar: the magnetic rotation of the one-dimensional rotational vibration can be viewed both clockwise and counter-clockwise (see Figure 2). Generally in the magnetic resonance experiments, the atoms are induced to take only a single magnetic charge and thus have resonance frequencies of 15.36 MHz or less. The exceptions, such as F and T1, are apparently induced to take multiple charges
Table II compares the observed resonance frequencies  (of stable isotopes) with the theoretical results from eq. (14). (Note: Thermal energy and cohesive energy are not taken into account; numerous isotopes (usually unstable) given in Ref. 12 have resonance frequencies less than 6.14 MHzthese are not given in the table below. Further theoretical work is necessary to include thermal energy, cohesive energy, and instability effects in magnetic resonance).
MAGNETIC RESONANCE FREQUENCIES
The equation appears to work well for the majority of atoms studied (rcorr = .956 for the table). In those cases where the equation does poorly, the thermal effects may be the culprit. Ideally, the experiments should be repeated with the atoms widely separated and at close to 0 degrees K in temperature then the effects of thermal energy and cohesive energy would be eliminated. Under such conditions all frequencies for the induction of a single unit of magnetic charge in a stable isotope should be between 6.14 MHz and 15.36 MHz when the field B is 1 Tesla.
Atoms with an even number of neutrino-induced isotopic charges (half on each rotational system) have no need to acquire another charge for balance. Hence in the current jargon these atoms do not have a magnetic moment.
In the series of isotopes of an element, the placement of the magnetic charge appears to alternate with the placement of the isotopic charge. A quantitative check on this is difficult to do because in most such series there are unstable isotopes this instability adds another variable to the problem. Apparently if the number of isotopic charges is greater than that allowed by the magnetic ionizat ion level, the energy required to induce a magnetic charge is decreased. Once the magnetic field is turned off and the photon bombardment ceases, the magnetic charges are transformed to radio photons and lost. Only a few elements, such as Co, Ni, and Fe, are able to retain a magnetic charge.
Summary. Electric and magnetic charges are not unanalyzable; they are one and two-dimensional rotational vibrations of a sub-atom or atom. They are also not permanent and inviolate; they may be created or destroyed, so long as overall motion displacement is conserved.
1a. The work function of a material is not the energy required to remove the least tightly bound electron; it is the energy required to charge an uncharged electron in that material.
1b. The ionization energy of an atom is not the energy required to separate pre-existing charged protons and electrons; it is the energy required to create a negative charge (on an electron) and a positive charge (on an atom) and is equal to twice the work function.
2. The magnetic resonance energy of a sub-atom or atom does not indicate a previously existing intrinsic magnetic moment; it is the energy required to induce one or more dipolar magnetic charges in sub-atoms or atoms.