IDENTIFICATION
OF COSMIC PARTICLES
3695 MeV/C² AND MeV/C²
In November, 1974, two teams, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory
and the other at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, announced the discovery
of a new particle with a mass equivalent to 3,105 MeV/c² of energy.
The lifetime of this particle is about 10^{20}
second, considered by some to be a remarkably long lifetime for a particle
of this heavy mass. This particle is named with the Greek letter, psi,
and is referred to as a psi resonance.
Shortly afterward, the two teams discovered a second psi resonance with
a mass equivalent to 3,695 MeV/c² of energy and lifetime of about
10^{20} second. Cosmic decay of the 3,695
MeV/c² particle apparently results in production of 3,105 MeV/c²
particle.
Discovery of these two new physical entities is exciting news from the
frontiers of physics. How the psi resonances fit into the physical scheme
of things has remained a mystery until now. The discovery of the mere
existence of these highenergy particles has been deemed so important
that the leaders of the two teams, Drs. Samuel Ting and Burton Richter,
were awarded the 1976 Nobel Prize in physics for this discovery.
In the Reciprocal System psi resonances and other related cosmic particles
are identified as specific isotopes of cosmic chemical elements.
The identification procedure depends on the convergence of several lines
of approach, including theoretical computation ot the mass and lifetime
of each particle and also examination whether and how ic can fit into
the regular cosmic decay sequence after the particle enters the material
sector.
Cosmic element mass once the cosmic element enters the material sector
is generally made up ot its rotational mass,the inverse of the material
element mass (Figures 1 and 2), and of its material gravitational charges
(Figure 3) acquired with entry into the material sector (Larson, 1979).
Figure 1

COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS

1 atomic mass unit = 1.66 × 10^{27 }kg. 
c = 2.99 x 10^{8} m/ s ; c²
= 8.94 × 10^{16} m²/ s²

Equivalent energy of 1 a.m.u. = mc² 
1 a.m.u. = (1.66 x 10^{27 }kg)
(8.94 × 10^{16} m ²/ s²
= 14.9 x 10^{11} J 
1 electron volt = 1 ev = 1.6 x 10^{19}
J 
Energy equivalent of 1 a.m.u. = 14.9 × 10^{11
}J / 1.6 X 10^{19}J 
1 atomic mass unit = 931.15 MeV/c² 
Mass of a material atom of atomic number Z: 
m = 1862.30Z MeV/c² (1862.3 = 2 (931.15)) 
Mass of a cosmic atom is INVERSE mass 
We observe cosmic mass as 1862.30/Z MeV/c² 
Figure 2

COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS

Let Z = atomic number of cosmic element 
cosmic mass = 1862.30/Z MeV/c² 
Alternative Procedure

Instead of atomic number units (Z), 
use atomic mass (or weight) units to express osmic mass. 
Atomic weight units are half the size of units of atomic number. 
Then cosmic mass = 3724.61/m MeV/c² 
This is the mass of cosmic atom (isotope) 
in the condition in which it enters material sector. 
m here represents atomic weight units 
Figure 3

COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS

after element enters material sector. 
Mass of cosmic element in atomic weight units when it enters
material sector: 
Cosmic mass = 3724.61/m MeV/c2, m here represents atomic weight
units. 
Superscripts for isotope symbols are atomic weight units. 
After entering material sector cosmic atoms 
may acquire gravitational charges of material type. 
Mass of each gravitational charge is one atomic weight unit = 931.15
MeV. 
The psi resonance with a mass equivalent to 3695 MeV/C² has been
identified as the isotope of cosmic hydrogen, cH², cosmic deuteron
with two material gravitational charges (Figure 4). This is a deduction
from the Reciprocal System theory and the achievement of Ronald W. Satz
(1975) and Larson (1979).
Figure 4

IDENTIFICATION OF 3695 MeV/c² PARTICLE

Identified by R. W. Satz as “cosmic deuteron with two material
isotope charges” (cH²). 
Rotational mass of a material hydrogen (H²) atom is
1.007405 units of atomic number scale. 
Mass of a cosmic H² atom is the reciprocal of this number
= 0.99265 units. 
For hydrogen Z = 1, first portion of 
Cosmic mass of cH² = 1862.31 (0.99265/Z: 
Rotational cosmic mass of cH² = 1848 MeV/c2 
After entry to material sector cH² acquires two material gravitational
charges 
2(931.15 MeV/c²) = 1862.3 MeV/c² 
Total cosmic mass of cH² = 
1848 MeV/c² + 1862 MeV/c² = 3710 MeV/c² 
Observed mass of cH² reported as 3695 MeV/c² 
The psi resonance with a mass equivalent of 3105 MeV/c² has bean
identified as an isotope of cosmic helium, cHe³ with two material
gravitational charges (Figure 5). This is an achievement of D.B. Larson
(1979).
Figure 5

IDENTIFICATION OF 3105 MeV/c² PARTICLE

Identified by D. B. Larson as cosmic helium with two material gravitational
charges (cHe³). 
The material He³ isotope is a He atom (mass = 4 atomic
weight units) with a oneunit negative gravitational charge (one negative
atomic weight unit). The mass of the isotope is then 3 atomic weight
units. 
The cosmic He³ isotope is a similar but inverse
structure, with a net mass of 3 cosmic atomic weight units. 
Since the cHe3 isotope has a mass of 3 cosmic atomic weight units,
its rotational mass as observed in the material sector is 3724.61/3
= 1242 MeV/c². 
After entry to material sector the cHe³ isotope adds two material
gravitational charges mass 931.15 each making total mass 3104 MeV/c².
Observed mass reported as 3105 MeV/c² . 
Some 20 years ago Larson (1959) already identified as isotopes of other
cosmic chemical elements the muon, the pion, the lambda, sigma, xi and
omega particles (Table 1).
TABLE 1

SOME COSMIC ELEMENT ISOTOPES IDENTIFIED

Isotope

Cosmic Mass
3724.61/ m
MeV/ c²

Gravitational
Number

Charges
mass
MeV/c²

Total
Mass
MeV/c²

Observed
Mass
MeV/c²

Name

cH²

1848

2

1862

3710

3695

psi

cHe³

1242

2

1862

3104

3105

psi

cLi^{5}

745

1

931

1676

1673

omega

cB^{10}

373

1

931

1304

1321

xi

cN^{14}

266

1

931

1197

1197

sigma

cNe^{20}

185

1

931

1116

1116

lambda

cSi^{27}

138

0

0

138

140

pion

cAr^{35}

106

0

0

106

106

muon

References
Dewey B. Larson, The Structure of The Physical Universe, North
Pacific Publishers, 1959.
Dewey B. Larson, Nothing But Motion, Volume I of a Revised
and Enlarged Edition of The Structure of The Physical Universe,
1979. North Pacific Publishers.
Ronald W. Satz, Cosmic
Rays and Elementary Particles: A View of the Reciprocal System
Reciprocity Vol. V, no. 2 (May 1975)
