IDENTIFICATION OF COSMIC PARTICLES
3695 MeV/C² AND MeV/C²

In November, 1974, two teams, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the other at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, announced the discovery of a new particle with a mass equivalent to 3,105 MeV/c² of energy. The lifetime of this particle is about 10-20 second, considered by some to be a remarkably long lifetime for a particle of this heavy mass. This particle is named with the Greek letter, psi, and is referred to as a psi resonance.

Shortly afterward, the two teams discovered a second psi resonance with a mass equivalent to 3,695 MeV/c² of energy and lifetime of about 10-20 second. Cosmic decay of the 3,695 MeV/c² particle apparently results in production of 3,105 MeV/c² particle.

Discovery of these two new physical entities is exciting news from the frontiers of physics. How the psi resonances fit into the physical scheme of things has remained a mystery until now. The discovery of the mere existence of these high-energy particles has been deemed so important that the leaders of the two teams, Drs. Samuel Ting and Burton Richter, were awarded the 1976 Nobel Prize in physics for this discovery.

In the Reciprocal System psi resonances and other related cosmic particles are identified as specific isotopes of cosmic chemical elements.

The identification procedure depends on the convergence of several lines of approach, including theoretical computation ot the mass and lifetime of each particle and also examination whether and how ic can fit into the regular cosmic decay sequence after the particle enters the material sector.

Cosmic element mass once the cosmic element enters the material sector is generally made up ot its rotational mass,the inverse of the material element mass (Figures 1 and 2), and of its material gravitational charges (Figure 3) acquired with entry into the material sector (Larson, 1979).

Figure 1
COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS
1 atomic mass unit = 1.66 × 10-27 kg.
c = 2.99 x 108 m/ s ; c² = 8.94 × 1016 m²/ s²
Equivalent energy of 1 a.m.u. = mc²
1 a.m.u. = (1.66 x 10-27 kg) (8.94 × 1016 m ²/ s² = 14.9 x 10-11 J
1 electron volt = 1 ev = 1.6 x 10-19 J
Energy equivalent of 1 a.m.u. = 14.9 × 10-11 J / 1.6 X 10-19J
1 atomic mass unit = 931.15 MeV/c²
Mass of a material atom of atomic number Z:
m = 1862.30Z MeV/c²  (1862.3 = 2 (931.15))
Mass of a cosmic atom is INVERSE mass
We observe cosmic mass as 1862.30/Z MeV/c²

Figure 2
COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS
Let Z = atomic number of cosmic element
cosmic mass = 1862.30/Z MeV/c²
Alternative Procedure
Instead of atomic number units (Z),
use atomic mass (or weight) units to express osmic mass.
Atomic weight units are half the size of units of atomic number.
Then cosmic mass = 3724.61/m MeV/c²
This is the mass of cosmic atom (isotope)
in the condition in which it enters material sector.
m here represents atomic weight units

Figure 3
COMPUTATION OF COSMIC ELEMENT MASS
after element enters material sector.
Mass of cosmic element in atomic weight units when it enters material sector:
Cosmic mass = 3724.61/m MeV/c2, m here represents atomic weight units.
Superscripts for isotope symbols are atomic weight units.
After entering material sector cosmic atoms
may acquire gravitational charges of material type.
Mass of each gravitational charge is one atomic weight unit = 931.15 MeV.

The psi resonance with a mass equivalent to 3695 MeV/C² has been identified as the isotope of cosmic hydrogen, c-H², cosmic deuteron with two material gravitational charges (Figure 4). This is a deduction from the Reciprocal System theory and the achievement of Ronald W. Satz (1975) and Larson (1979).

Figure 4
IDENTIFICATION OF 3695 MeV/c² PARTICLE
Identified by R. W. Satz as “cosmic deuteron with two material isotope charges” (c-H²).
Rotational mass of a material hydrogen (H²) atom is 1.007405 units of atomic number scale.
Mass of a cosmic H² atom is the reciprocal of this number = 0.99265 units.
For hydrogen Z = 1, first portion of
Cosmic mass of c-H² = 1862.31 (0.99265/Z:
Rotational cosmic mass of c-H² = 1848 MeV/c2
After entry to material sector c-H² acquires two material gravitational charges
2(931.15 MeV/c²) = 1862.3 MeV/c²
Total cosmic mass of c-H² =
1848 MeV/c² + 1862 MeV/c² = 3710 MeV/c²
Observed mass of c-H² reported as 3695 MeV/c²

The psi resonance with a mass equivalent of 3105 MeV/c² has bean identified as an isotope of cosmic helium, c-He³ with two material gravitational charges (Figure 5). This is an achievement of D.B. Larson (1979).

Figure 5
IDENTIFICATION OF 3105 MeV/c² PARTICLE
Identified by D. B. Larson as cosmic helium with two material gravitational charges (c-He³).
The material He³ isotope is a He atom (mass = 4 atomic weight units) with a one-unit negative gravitational charge (one negative atomic weight unit). The mass of the isotope is then 3 atomic weight units.
The cosmic He³ isotope is a similar but inverse structure, with a net mass of 3 cosmic atomic weight units.
Since the c-He3 isotope has a mass of 3 cosmic atomic weight units, its rotational mass as observed in the material sector is 3724.61/3 = 1242 MeV/c².
After entry to material sector the c-He³ isotope adds two material gravitational charges mass 931.15 each making total mass 3104 MeV/c². Observed mass reported as 3105 MeV/c² .

Some 20 years ago Larson (1959) already identified as isotopes of other cosmic chemical elements the muon, the pion, the lambda, sigma, xi and omega particles (Table 1).

TABLE 1
SOME COSMIC ELEMENT ISOTOPES IDENTIFIED


Isotope
Cosmic Mass
3724.61/ m
MeV/ c²

Gravitational
   Number
Charges
mass
MeV/c²
Total
Mass
MeV/c²
Observed
Mass
MeV/c²


Name
c-H²
1848
2
1862
3710
3695
psi
c-He³
1242
2
1862
3104
3105
psi
c-Li5
745
1
931
1676
1673
omega
c-B10
373
1
931
1304
1321
xi
c-N14
266
1
931
1197
1197
sigma
c-Ne20
185
1
931
1116
1116
lambda
c-Si27
138
0
0
138
140
pion
c-Ar35
106
0
0
106
106
muon

References

Dewey B. Larson, The Structure of The Physical Universe, North Pacific Publishers, 1959.

Dewey B. Larson, Nothing But Motion, Volume I of a Revised and Enlarged Edition of The Structure of The Physical Universe, 1979. North Pacific Publishers.

Ronald W. Satz, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles: A View of the Reciprocal System Reciprocity Vol. V, no. 2 (May 1975)