Kinetons in the Reciprocal System[1]
The Reciprocal System defines the physical universe as a finite set of units
of three-dimensional motion. For the sake of accuracy and brevity, I will
call these fundamental units From Kinetons to Photons The simplest modification that a kineton may undergo is the addition of a unit of one-dimensional energy (inverse speed, t/s) in one of the three dimensions of kineton progression, becoming a photon. Photons are produced in many different natural processes, perhaps the most common one being emission by atoms that have been excited by the addition of energy (inverse speed). Such atoms revert to their ground state by the emission a unit of this inverse speed in the form of a photon. But energy is not speed; it is inverse speed. In the material sector inverse speeds can only exist as modifications of existing speeds; they cannot exist independently. The atom’s excess energy must be attached to a preexisting speed. All material entities are subjected to a flux of kinetons, uncharged electrons and, to a lesser extent, of photons. Of these three, the kinetons are by far the most abundant. For this reason alone it could be expected that the unit of energy would most commonly attach itself to a kineton. Another consideration, besides sheer abundance, is that the kinetons are moving outward in three-dimensions, all of which are available to the excited atom for the disposal of its excess energy. The uncharged electrons are units of rotational space displacement, confined to the time region of the material aggregate. The electron will only accept energy in the form of a charge, that is, a rotational vibration, as a modification of its basic space displacement. For this transfer to take place, the atom not only has to pass through the space of the uncharged electron, but the encounter of atom and electron must take place along the correct rotational axis. Kinetons, on the other hand, will accept energy whatever their orientation, are extremely abundant, and can move through both space and time (matter). Hence we would expect the most frequent energy transfers to involve kinetons rather than uncharged electrons. The addition of energy to a kineton results in a photon. Energy being one-dimensional, its effect on the kineton is confined to one dimension only. In the other two dimensions, the progression takes place as before. From Energy to Speed and Back Let us label the three scalar dimensions of the kineton Our characterization of the photon as oscillating between unit speed and unit energy is based on the different zero points of speed and energy; no outside mechanism is needed to produce the reversals at each zero point. While the photon is oscillating in dimension Let us now reorient our reference system with respect to the natural system so
as to make dimension Polarization A photon is polarized when its oscillation, which is perpendicular to the line
of travel, is rotated by 90°. From the natural standpoint the polarization
merely signifies that the photon’s orientation with respect to the
reference system from which we view it is switched from The Photon’s Two-Dimensional Path The fact that the photon is moving linearly outward in two dimensions, while
vibrating in the third is crucial in explaining the peculiar behavior
of photons. Quantum mechanics has been successful in describing this behavior
mathematically, but has failed utterly to account for it in any fashion
that does not violate elementary principles of logic. Although the fundamental
postulates require that photons move linearly outward along a two-dimensional
path, while oscillating in a third dimension, Larson, followed by Satz,
have confined the translational motion of the photon to a single dimension,
allowing it to oscillate in a second.[2] They have understood the combination of the photon’s oscillation and translational
motion as accounting for its behavior as a wave in transmission, and as
a particle in emission and absorption. They have declared the problem
solved, without asking if their solution really accounts for the experimental
evidence that has forced physicists to accept, at least provisionally,
Bohr’s principle of complementarity. As for Kirk’s views on
the photon, I confess that I do not fully understand them, though I have
spent a considerable amount of time in the effort. But I gather that the
second scalar dimension discussed by him refers to the oscillation, and
not to a second dimension of translational motion.[3] The Double-slit Experiment In the double-slit experiment, a beam of light is shone through two narrow slits
at a screen. The screen displays an interference pattern such as would
result if light travelled as consecutive waves, each passing through both
slits at once, creating smaller waves issuing from each slit on the other
side. These smaller waves then appear to interfere with one another, forming
a characteristic pattern of maximum brightness in the area between the
two slits, with dark bands on either side, and a less bright area directly
behind each slit.[4] If photons were simple bullet-like particles, like the corpuscles postulated
by Newton, or even some sort of oscillating corpuscles, as posited by
Larson and Satz, we would expect to find a bright area directly behind
each of the slits, and only darkness in between. In modern physics the
photon is a wave-like quantum phenomenon that appears to go through both
slits simultaneously—although its path is indeterminate. But in the
Reciprocal System, the photon travelling in two dimensions can pass through
both slits simultaneously. We can represent both of these dimensions by
constructing two independent Cartesian coordinate systems, each with its
own set of double slits. The photon can be thought of as travelling along
two one-dimensional paths in each of these systems—though in reality
it is travelling along a single two-dimensional path. Hence each photon
truly does enter through each of the two slits. This apparently counterintuitive
conclusion follows from our earlier finding that the photon is moving
in coordinate time as well as in space. No object can be in two different
space locations at the same time; but in this instance we are dealing
with two different locations in coordinate time, each associated with
a different location in coordinate space. That is what two-dimensional
motion necessarily means. A similar situation arises in relation to a
massive body, such as the earth, which is moving inward in three dimensions
toward all other locations. For each location in space toward which it
is moving there corresponds a unique location in coordinate time. The EPR Paradox In a paper published in 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen attempted to show that quantum mechanics led to the prediction that two photons, produced in a single event, and isolated from one another thereafter, nevertheless affect one another instantaneously; from this they concluded that quantum mechanics is an incomplete description of reality.[5] The reality of this apparently paradoxical behavior of photons was recently confirmed by Alain Aspect.[6] From the point of view of the Reciprocal System, the Aspect experiment has never been properly explained. Satz’s attempt to explain it by claiming that the two photons, while separated in space, are still contiguous in time, is self contradictory, since photons do travel in coordinate time as well as in space according to the Reciprocal System.[7] One of the most elegant achievements of the Reciprocal System is its explanation of the apparent time-dilation at high velocities in terms of motion in time. The EPR paradox and the experiments that have confirmed its reality can only be explained if the photon is really moving outward in a two-dimensional path. If two separate and independent Cartesian coordinate systems are set up, both paths can be observed, though not simultaneously. In his experiment Aspect found interference between his two sets of isolated photons, and concluded that they were somehow communicating instantaneously, in violation of Special Relativity. But in the Reciprocal System, instead of two separate photons, we are dealing with a single photon travelling along a two-dimensional path. Since only one particle is involved, anything done to it in one coordinate system will be reflected in the other system. It is not a question of contiguity in time, but of identity. The reader is invited to apply the photon as described in this paper to other experiments purporting to support quantum mechanics, including the so-called ”Delayed-Choice” experiment, in which causality appears to be violated.[8] The apparent ”ghost-like” behavior of this particle, as well as of the charged electron, which too is moving in two scalar dimensions simultaneously, will be recognized as completely logical and understandable. Doubly-oscillating Photons and the Laser Since the postulates allow for the existence of a photon oscillating in one dimension
while moving outward in the other two dimensions, do they also allow for
the existence of another type of photon moving outward in one dimension
and oscillating in two? In our terminology, could the kineton acquire
two units of energy in two separate scalar dimensions, in Doubly-oscillating Photons and Atom Building In [1]Copyright © 1992 by Jan Sammer. All rights reserved [2] [3]Tom Kirk, ”The Photon: Displacement in a Second
Scalar Dimension,” [4] [5]Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen,
”Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered
Complete?” [6]Alain Aspect, ”Proposed Experiment to Test the
Nonseparability of Quantum Mechanics,” [7]Ronald W. Satz, ”A Note on Scalar Motion,”
[8]William C. Wickes, Carroll O. Alley, and Oleg Jakubowitz,
”A ‘Delayed-Choice’ Quantum Mechanics Experiment,”
in [9] [10] |