IS FERROMAGNETISM A CO-MAGNETIC PHENOMENON Introduction According to the Reciprocal System, magnetism is the manifestation of two-dimensional scalar motion of the rotational vibration type with space displacement. Since the stationary three-dimensional spatial frame of reference is capable of representing not more than one dimension of a scalar motion, only one dimension of the motion of a magnetic charge, which is two (scalar) - dimensional, is observable while the scalar motion in the second dimension is unobservable. In the phenomenon of the ferromagnetism the material
exhibits large spontaneous magnetization in the absence of any externally
applied magnetic field, below a characteristic temperature called the
Curie point. Relatively few elements are ferromagnetic. This is because
“a magnetic charge, as a distinct entity, can exist only where an
atom is so constituted that there is a portion of the atomic structure
that can vibrate twodimensionally independently of the main body of the
atom.” Another important point that we need to note is that
“Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon of the time region, and its natural
zero point (the Curie temperature) is therefore a boundary between two
dissimilar regions ...” Into the Time Region The conventional theory tries to explain the spontaneous
magnetization of the ferromagnetism by the mutual magnetic interaction
of the atomic dipoles. The initial attempts at this explanation ran into
trouble when it was found that the strength of this interaction which
is needed to explain the observed high intensity of magnetization had
to be nearly 10 In the Reciprocal System, however, the explanation comes
out naturally: it stems from the second power relation between the corresponding
quantities of the inside and the outside regions. Explaining cohesion
in solids Larson points out: “As we found in Chapter 12, Vol. I,
the equivalent of distance s in the time region is s², and the ...
force in this region therefore varies as the fourth power of the distance
rather than the square.” Co-Magnetism In an earlier paper
^{(5) }we
have shown that when the magnetic motion enters the time region, the apparent
direction of the motion reverse, resulting in an attraction of like poles
and a repulsion of unlike poles. The phenomenon has been referred to as
‘comagnetism.’ This is illustrated in Fig.l, which is reproduced
from the above referred paper. Figure 1
It can be gathered from Fig. 1(c) that the minimum energy
configuration for two magnetic dipoles when located adjacent to each other
is when the respective dipole directions are antiparallel, and if placed
collinearly is when the dipole directions are parallel. On the other hand,
in the case of co-magnetism, as could be seen from Fig. I(d), the minimum
energy configuration of two dipoles which are adjacent is when their directions
are parallel and if they are collinear when their directions are antiparallel.
The scheme of orientations is illustrated in Fig. 2. Figure 2 We shall presently show how comagnetism is responsible for the domain structure characteristic of the ferromagnetic order. The point that is of significance here is that the magnetic charge (motion) is two dimensional. If p and q are respectively the effective speeds in the two scalar dimensions concerned of the magnetic charge, the motion of the charge crosses the regional boundary effectively when the product, p*q, or more correctly, their geometric mean, falls below the value of the compound unit of space. This could happen in either of the three ways (see also the Appendix): Case (i): when the component motion p, pertaining to
the dimension parallel to the dimension of the conventional spatial reference
frame, is still outside the compound unit, while the component q, pertaining
to the second scalar dimension (which we shall refer to as the ‘transverse
dimension’' for the purposes of this paper) crosses the regional
boundary and enters the inside region; Though “the motion components in the second dimension
are not capable of direct representation in the conventional spatial reference
system, ... they have indirect effects that are observable, particularly
on the effective magnitudes.” Coupling this conclusion with the inferences we have drawn earlier, concerning the least energy configurations of the magnetic and co-magnetic dipole pairs respectively, we can deduce the types of ordering that are possible in aggregates of these dipoles for the cases (i) to (iii) noted above. These are shown in Fig. 3. Figs. 3 (a), (b) and (c) respectively depict cases (i), (ii) and (iii). Figure 3 It is at once evident that case (i) results in the all-parallel dipole ordering called the ferromagnetic. The remaining cases can be seen to result in the antiferromagnetic orderings. In the case when the adjacent magnetic charges are of differing magnitudes antiferromagnetism shows up as ferrimagnetism. Summary (1) The ferro- and antiferromagnetic phenomena are the result of the magnetic charge entering the inside of the time region unit of space. (2) The apparently strong interaction that is responsible for the spontaneous magnetization stems from the second power relations relevant to the inside region. (3) The ferro- and antiferromagnetic orderings of the dipoles are the result of either one or both of the motion components of the twodimensional motion that is the magnetic charge entering the inside region and thereby turning into the co-magnetic in the the dimension concerned. References - D.B. Larson,
*Basic Properties of Matter*, Intl. Soc. of Unified Science, 1680 East Atkin Av., Salt Lake City, Utah 84106, U.S.A, 1988, pp. 215-216 - Ibid., p. 251
- Ibid., p. 6
- Ibid., pp. 7-8
- K.V.K Nehru, “Glimpses into the Structure of Sun: Part I, The Nature of Stellar Matter,” Reciprocity, XVII(2), Autumn 1988, pp.14.21
- D.B. Larson, Basic Pronerties of Matter, op. cit., p. 212
- Ibid., p. 213
Appendix Theoretically there could be seven types of the dipole orderings. Let p be the component of the magnetic charge in the collinear direction, and q be the one in the traverse direction, of the geometric representations. Splitting q into q1 and q2 to represent each of the two transverse directions and adopting brackets to indicate that the component is inside the compound unit of space, we have the following seven possibilities, all of which exemplify the magnetic charge crossing the interregional boundary: (i) P - [q1] - [q2] Of these, combinations (iv) and (v) are geometrically identical. So are combinations (vi) and (vii). Only the first combination gives rise to ferromagnetism. All the remaining lead to antiferromagnetism. The characteristic common to all the antiferromagnetic combinations is the occurence of parallel crystal planes such that while the dipoles in any plane are all mutually parallel, the dipoles in neighboring planes are antiparallel. The matter in which these combinations differ from each other is in the orientation of these planes and in the inclination of the dipole direction with respect to these planes. |