Sub-Atomic Particle Array
A Revised Hypothesis
A slightly different derivation of the Reciprocal System of Theory leads to a different hypothesis as the basis of the subatomic particle array. The nature of charge plays a major part in the revised development. This new hypothesis is well founded in basic RS principles and, due to the foundational level from which it extends, will stand as a new view on physical theory in general.
The photon is the simplest association of space and time; a 1:1 relation, s:t. There is no argument among Reciprocal theorists as far as this goes. Larson envisioned a one dimensional association as this original simplest association, and this work proceeds from that basis. After all, simple space is s, not s3, and an s3:t3 relation would have a greater magnitude, whereas the universe would tend to develop by minimum increments. Without getting too involved with the detailed structure of the photon, which is not the focus here, it is important to establish a few more principles about the photon that are necessary for development of more complex objects.
In the association of the photon's space coordinate unit with its time coordinate unit, it is in this same unit of progression or 3-d time that the object forms. Yet after the object forms and takes its final form, there is a second unit of general progression time in which the object manifests. There is the spatial manifestation, basically the wave length, which will not be a topic here, and then there is the time manifestation, which manifests as the progression of the object. This is the singular point where the derivation varies from Larson's; one time unit is required for the association with space, yet the time for manifestation of the resultant object is a different separate and distinct unit.
All objects have this in common, their second time unit.
With this concept in mind, the next step in development of a more complex object is the addition of another coordinate or 1-d association of space with time, within the same 3-d space unit and time unit of the original object. This is the requirement for a singular object. If the time and space units are not the same, a second object will emerge. The original association of s:t was one dimensional, but the space and time units of which s and t are a part are 3 dimensional in nature. Therefore another association is possible within the same space-time unit. This, as Larson maintained, yields a rotation of the photon, a 2-dimensional structure.
Larson also pointed out that there are two possibilities at this stage of object development, material and cosmic. These two objects will be designated here as:
The second number in this coding is the potential for a rotation of the original 2-d rotation of the photon. This will yield a 3-d structure, the maximum level of distribution within 3-d space and 3-d time.
The structure and dynamics of these space:time associations are more involved than in the photon, but the purpose here is only to lay out a base pattern for the array of subatomic particles extending from the Reciprocal System. Therefore, these two objects will simply be taken at face value as the 2 dimensional objects with the next higher incremental level of time-space association above the photon. The precise dynamics within the structure of these two particles are not absolutely certain at this time, and the intent here is to present only those concepts that have very high reliability as being ultimately correct. This will provide for a solidly based hypothesis in the final subatomic array; a structure inherently consisting of many inter-relationships between particles that will guide exploration of principles of motion within the particles.
These 2-d objects will have the same general association with the second time unit as the photon. They will have an incremental one unit time progression due to this association (plus of course an incrementally enforced unit of space envelope coincident with the unit wavelength sphere of the original 1/2:2/1 photon).
Since the material object (1-0) will have some gravitation, its progression will be restricted from motion in space, yet the unit progression will still be effective as it is a unit shift in time. The time shift progression unit is 3-dimensional in time (1-d in space), due to its origination at the zero space reference. The T locus shifts from the zero speed state towards conformance with the time reference state, unit speed, and as such is non-specific in time. A space or time reference point is 3-d by nature; only that which extends from the reference is coordinate and 1-dimensional. This is a motion inward in time towards the unit speed reference. Gravity is inherently 1-d in time by its nature (this is understood best or possibly only through an understanding of coordinate time which is beyond the scope here) and opposes the time shift providing a residual 2-dimensional motion in time. This motion is circulatory in space and therefore only manifests in a relative way between two objects with the same motion form. (Relative motion between objects due to charge is beyond the scope here.) It should be noted that this motion is not really a part of the object as is inertia or gravity. It is a motion of the object in time, not a motion that is the object. This motion in time will be identified as charge, or positive charge, more precisely.
The cosmic object will experience the same one unit time shift, but its inertial reference initially is time or unit speed progression. The time shift will again be inward in time, the precise same action as for positive charge, but beginning from the unit speed state, yielding the n/1 speed form in the cosmic sector. Motion inward in time from this reference extends towards zero speed in time, or n/1 where n>1. The shift will be one unit inward to 2 units bringing the object to zero speed in space. Speed 2/1 is zero speed in space in conformance with Larson's findings. This shift will be one dimensional in time and is in this case fully manifested in time, through the shift to zero speed in space. A cosmic object moved away towards n/1 speed from the coordinate time zero reference, i.e. unit progression, will manifest 1-dimensionally in time, just as an object in space always manifests 1-dimensionally in space under the same space reference circumstances at speed 1/n. However, inertial cosmic mass is 3-dimensional in time by nature, acting in opposition to the one-dimensional time shift. The residual 2 dimensions of inertial mass manifest as charge motion, but in a certain inverse way to the charge on its material sector counterpart.
The inverseness pervades the comparison throughout. A positive charge begins at zero speed and acts outward in space, 3 dimensionally in time, against a one-dimensional time restraint, material gravity (3-d in space). A negative charge begins at unit speed progression and acts inward in space, one dimensionally in time, against the outward 3-d inertial progression of cosmic inertia (3-d in time). Note the inversion of gravity and inertia between the 2 sectors. The inverseness is so great that a negative charge is a component of inertial cosmic mass, not the time shift itself as for positive charge.
Larson defaulted charge to be a rotational vibration, in that rotation was reserved as a property of mass, and vibration a property of the photon. This was convenient but rather inductive rather than deductive, and getting close to the "only way left" possibility that he so abhorred in other scientist's works. Another reason that Larson did not see other possibilities was that he had also inductively or even arbitrarily taken space and time to be symmetrical. If the above analysis of charge is studied closely, space and time take on very revealing inverse characteristics, not symmetrical.
The cosmic and material particles developed above can be identified as an electron and a positron respectively, with their negative and positive charges.
They lose their charges when completely encompassed within a cosmic mass or mass structure, respectively. In the case of the positron, just being at the progression of the speed of light, which is the inertial state of the cosmic sector eliminates the mandate for charge. Being at unit speed, fully manifests the charge motion and also eliminates gravity, as Larson maintains. The all-encompassing association with the cosmic mass aggregate, maintains the continuity of the zero inertial time state (unit progression). Without such protection, the slightest speed decrease would actuate gravity beginning a vicious circle of gravity causing slowing and more slowing causing more gravity and so on. The mandated charge would quickly return.
The electron charge motion is as discussed, 2-dimensional in time, and at all times orthogonal to the outward progression (which is restrained by the time shift in the orthogonal dimension). This forms a circulatory motion conforming to the form of motion that originates mass through photon rotation. The portion of cosmic mass within the electron that is the direct inverse of material mass is neutralized by the charge shift. The cosmic inertial, and coincident gravitational, progression inward in time to the 1/1 zero time state is neutralized leaving the residual 2-d time motion charge.
This remainder is a circulatory motion. The circulatory motion of the positron charge acts outward in space, in opposition to mass; the electron charge acts inversely to the positron charge, therefoe the electron charge acts n conformance to mass. The electron charge is absorbed by matter, not in opposition to mass but as an addition to mass. Already in our study of the array, an important concept has come to light; the fundamental motion that adds mass to a particle is the same in the material and cosmic sectors. The inverse aspect of mass is derived from within the inner component that is rotated, not the circulatory motion itself. Recall that the inverse charge in the positron yields a reverse circulatory motion, that would in fact neutralize the circulatory motion of mass or cosmic mass. Within a cosmic aggregate, a positron has no charge, but imparts an increment of cosmic inertia from it's progression in time.
One fundamental axiom of the universe, extending from simple logic, is that compound motion develops incrementally in minimum increments. This simply says that there are no gaps; where an increment could exist between two motion levels, it will exist.
The next increment will therefore involve an additional space:time association, but one that actually reduces the previous magnitude of manifestation:
It is not possible to directly initiate an inverse association within the structure formed by the s:t association that rotated the photon. Each incremental association is always the same in either sector, it is the inner structure, i.e. the positron or electron rotational bases, that determine the outcome of the increased association. However at this 2-d level of development, an association oriented to align with the original axis of photon rotation is possible. In 3-d structures, this axis is itself rotated and a direct correspondence of orientation is not possible. This corresponding alignment will not neutralize the original 2-d structure, but just add to it, pushing it beyond the zero point one unit back to the inverse reference. The net effect is neutralization of the mass component while maintaining both associations intact. This structure could actually be classified as the 2-0 or (2)-0 structure. The next levels of 3-0 and (3)-0 just push the structure further to higher levels of n without the inversion that occurs when crossing the zero reference. Since the internal structure at this stage (2-0 or (2)-0) is at the zero state, there is nothing to rotate or otherwise manifest in connection with an additional s:t association, and so such a particle does not exist.
This 2-0 or (2)-0 structure has some degree of neutralization of its predecessor's manifestation. In fact, the neutralization of mass manifestation in the material object, both inertial and gravitational, eliminates the object's charge, by allowing it to proceed to a unit progression state. This is the essential state of the photon, wherein the shift to a second time unit manifests as progression.
On the cosmic side, the additional association will neutralize the increment of inertial cosmic mass which was the source of the charge in that particle. The inverse cosmic mass association of space:time will directly eliminate the cosmic inertial and gravitational mass of the object and return it to the same progression status as its material counterpart, i.e. that of the photon. Both objects will be massless and uncharged and progress at unit speed, as the manifestation of the time shift. We identify these as the neutrino and the anti-neutrino.
The difference between these 2 particles is very slight. It is that the original inner base rotation is a positron in the neutrino and an electron for the anti-neutrino, though the net motion of both objects is essentially the same, once the effective neutralization of circulatory motion is effective. Conventional science describes the difference as purely a difference in direction of spin. This conforms well to the findings here, in that the particles are inversely derived, while having the same net outcome. However, the findings indicate that there is no spin involved, but only an inverse set of t:s associations. This is a parallel to motion of charge, where positive and negative charge seem to have the same properties, but in a different direction somehow.
The next higher incremental level structure therefore involves rotation of the preceding 2-d rotational structure:
This is a major step of association to 3 dimensional mass. These objects would be the proton and the anti-proton. In the 1-1 structure, there is still a unit progression (time) shift for the space-time location, again offset by gravitation, and the same form of resultant charge. The charge has a quite different equivalent mass manifestation due to the powerful effect of the 3-dimensional structure of the last mass increment on the time shift. This powerful effect also exists in the cosmic object, where the cosmic inertial 3-d mass will sustain the object at unit progression speed, thereby eliminating the usual form of charge motion, altering it to a different form. The structure of the cosmic charge of this type will be of an entirely different form, that is a charge at unit speed. Analysis indicates a 1-dimensional motion in time (magnetic field) will be the result instead of an electric field (2-d time). Anti-protons are as rare in the cosmic sector as protons are in the material sector. Considering that our exposure to cosmic mass is extraordinarily limited, detection of anti-protons has extremely remote potential. It is very difficult to verify derivations related to anti-protons.
One concept is clearly showing itself, that is the cosmic sector, the region conforming to time coordinates, is not symmetrical with the material sector. The irrefutable evidence is that both a positron and its cosmic counterpart (electron) exist at rest in space in the charged state. The electron should, in a symmetrical state, be at rest in coordinate time, i.e. at unit progression speed. What is emerging is a view of two sectors that are entirely inverse and parallel, but far from symmetrical.
Breaking away from the cosmic sector for reasons just presented, there exist other possibilities for subatomic particles. These extend from a second subatomic particle occupying the second time unit, of the original particle. That is, combinations of subatomic particles occupying the same space-time location, but in alternating time units.
Neutrinos and anti-neutrinos progress through the environment constantly in large numbers. A proton has a high propensity to have one of these take up residence in its second time unit. In fact, this is a more stable state than the singular proton, in that a better balance between sequential time units is established.
If a proton acquires an anti-neutrino, the occupant of the second time unit has a cosmic matter basis, namely the electron structure at its core. The 3-d proton structure will retain the mass of its core positron, since the shift to the second unit is not required due to its stabilization by the anti-neutrino. There will be a small net gain in the mass for the overall particle due to the outer mass type association in the anti-neutrino. This outer mass component of the anti-neutrino will have the relatively strong tendency to attain a time shift into the proton's time unit, due to its ability to assimilate into that mass structure. This particle will in many cases be charged.
If the proton acquires a neutrino, the neutrino mass based structure will balance the proton in the second unit, fully eliminating the charge mandate. There will be a significant gain in mass due to the contribution of the mass based structure. However this particle will be unstable, because mass has a high propensity to absorb anti-neutrinos, (for reasons that will not be addressed in detail here) and when the proton makes such an acquisition, there is a spontaneous inter-reaction with the neutrino in the second unit and the particle breaks down.
These two combination objects are the neutron (proton with neutrino) and the hydrogen single mass particle (proton with anti-neutrino). This is the reverse interpretation of Larson's. This finding within the hypothesis leads to the conclusion that atom building occurs by absorption of anti-neutrinos not neutrinos, as envisioned by Larson. Since anti-neutrinos would be distributed uniformly as are neutrinos and both progress at the speed of light, the only factor favoring one over the other would be the propensity for absorption.
Other combination particles should be explored besides the proton/neutrino and proton/anti-neutrino and their cosmic counterparts. In all cases, the two particles would be sharing the same space unit, though in alternate time units. These are of four basic types. Type 1 would be a pairing of two 2-d inverse particles. The annihilation of an electron and positron in such a close association would result, eliminating this possibility. The same would be true of a neutrino/anti-neutrino coupling.
In Type 2, the pairing of two 2-d particles of the same kind. A double positron association (or its inverse, a double electron association) and a double neutrino (or double anti-neutrino) account for these. The positron has only 2-d inertia so the former would be very difficult to form because of the strong repulsion of the two charges. There would appear to be no clear reason to eliminate the possibility, though bringing the two components together would be a very rare event. The two neutrinos would not form a viable connection, because the two particles manifest their 2nd time unit shift fully and continuously progress outward from each other.
Type 3 options are combinations of a electron and anti-neutrino and an electron and neutrino (and their cosmic counterparts). There would appear to be no clear reason to eliminate the possibility of the former, though bringing the two components together would be a rare event. The situation where this might occur would be in a radioactivity event. Preliminary investigation indicates that the muon neutrino suits the parameters for a electron/anti-neutrino particle. There would be no charge due to the second time unit being occupied by a particle with a cosmic mass component of the same increment of cosmic mass as the electron. There would be a mass less than the positron since there are no base mass increments, but only the secondary mass of the anti-neutrino being effective. Mass contains huge numbers of free electrons, and a second electron only needs to absorb an increment of isotopic mass to be ejected as an anti-neutrino. The close association existing between the two particles in a mass could yield such a muon neutrino from a high energy event. The positron/neutrino should be the cosmic counterpart with residual cosmic mass, and would have a relatively high mass value.
The other Type 3 counterparts, the positron/anti-neutrino and the electron/neutrino, would not have proper correspondence of their inertial status. The positron is based at the zero space reference system, while the anti-neutrino is based at the unit progression state. The positron, not being 3-d, would not have the potential to restrain the anti-neutrino from progressing outward in the remaining free dimension.
Type 4 combinations would include the proton/proton particle, which from all indications is actually the deuterium atom, the first real atom with the same mass structure in both time units, having a mass of two units. All other atoms are of the same form with identical structures in each time unit, sharing a single space unit in alternating units of time.
This development brings out an array of subatomic particles in Table 1.
One remaining question as to the possibility of other members of the subatomic array is whether there could exist subatomic objects of greater mass than one unit, such as 2-1. Preliminary study does not indicate any reason to specifically rule out such a particle, but due to the mechanisms for atomic growth, the chance for this particle to form is realized only in the rarest of circumstances. The 1-1 particle has a very high probability of absorbing an anti-neutrino and becoming an H1 atom, and in turn, two H1 atoms have a high probability of uniting as an H2 molecule. As such, the remotely plausible 2-1 subatomic particle does not have a reasonable opening to form.