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Section F

Sub-Atomic Particles

  1. From the points developed in Section E it is evident that between the rotational base 0-0-0 and the first of hte atoms 2-1-(1) there are a number of possible combinations of rotations. We will identify these as the sub-atomic particles.
  2. On this basis, the sub-atomic particles are not constituents of atoms, as viewed by current physical theory. They are incomplete atoms; that is, they are rotational combinations which do not have enough net total time displacement to form the two rotating systems that are required by the definition of an atom previously stated.
  3. The electric rotation in these sub-atomic structures is identical with that in the atoms, but the magnetic rotational unit is only half as large, as it applies to only one rotating system. In these structures, the electric equivalent of the magnetic rotation is therefore n, rather than 2n, and since n=1 in all of the sub-atomic particles, the magnetic rotational unit is equal to the electric rotational unit.
  4. The possible sub-atomic combinations with no electric rotation are the rotational base, 0-0-0, and the --0 structure, which we identify as the muon neutrino.
  5. Each of these magnetic combinations may add one unit of electric displacement, which may be either in space or in time. The additions to the rotational base produce 0-0-(1), which we identify as the electron, and 0-0-1, which we identify as the positron.
  6. The positron is essentially nothing but a rotating unit of time displacement, and is therefore readily absorbed by any atom, since the atom of ordinary matter is a combination of motions of this same kind—rotations with net displacement in time. The electron, on the other hand, is a rotating unit of space displacement, and the ability of atoms of ordinary matter to utilize space displacement is severely limited. The theoretical result is a scarcity of positrons and an abundance of electrons in the material sector of the universe. This agrees with the observed situation.
  7. Addition of electric displacement in space to the muon neutrino results in --(1), which we identify as the electron neutrino. This combination has a net effective displacement of zero, and it is therefore a very elusive particle, but it does play an important part in some of the phenomena that will appear later in the development.
  8. Addition of electric displacement in time to the muon neutrino would produce --1. It is more probable that this will form a double rotating system, 1-1-(1), and this combination is identified as the proton.

Summary of Sub-Atomic Particles
Particle
Displacements
Electron
0-0-(1)
Rotational Base
0-0-0
Positron
0-0-1
Electron Neutrino
--(1)
Muon Neutrino
--0
Proton
1-1-(1)

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