## CHAPTER 9## Electric CurrentsAnother set of properties of matter that we will want
to consider results from the interaction between matter and one of the
sub-atomic particles, the electron. As pointed out in Volume I, the electron,
M 0-0-(1), in the notation used in this work, is a unique particle. It
is the only particle constructed on the material rotational base, M 0-0-0,
(negative vibration and positive rotation) that has an effective Furthermore, the independent one-dimensional nature of
the rotation of the electron and its positive counterpart, the positron,
leads to another unique effect. As we found in our analysis of the rotations
that are possible for the basic vibrating unit, the primary rotation of
atoms and particles is two-dimensional. The simplest primary rotation
has a one-unit magnetic (two-dimensional) displacement, a unit deviation
from unit speed, the condition of rest in the physical universe. The electric
(one-dimensional) rotation, we found, is not a primary rotation, but merely
one that modifies a previously existing two-dimensional rotation. Addition
of the one-unit space displacement of the electron rotation to an existing
Thus the electron is essentially nothing more than a rotating unit of space. This is a concept that is rather difficult for most of us when it is first encountered, because it conflicts with the idea of the nature of space that we have gained from a long-continued, but uncritical, examination of our surroundings. However, the history of science is full of instances where it has been found necessary to recognize that a familiar, and apparently unique, phenomenon is merely one member of a general class, all members of which have the same physical significance. Energy is a good example. To the investigators who were laying the foundation of modern science in the Middle Ages the property that moving bodies possess by reason of their motion–“impetus” to those investigators; “kinetic energy” to us–was something of a unique nature. The idea that a motionless stick of wood contained the equivalent of this “impetus” because of its chemical composition was as foreign to them as the concept of a rotating unit of space is to most individuals today. But the discovery that kinetic energy is only one form of energy in general opened the door to a major advance in physical understanding. Similarly, the finding that the “space” of our ordinary experience, extension space, as we are calling it in this work, is merely one manifestation of space in general opens the door to an understanding of many aspects of the physical universe, including the phenomena connected with the movement of electrons in matter. In the universe of motion, the universe whose details
we are developing in this work, and whose identity with the observed physical
universe we are demonstrating as we go along, space enters into physical
phenomena only as a component of motion, and the specific nature of that
space is, for most purposes, irrelevant, just as the particular kind of
energy that enters into a physical process usually has no relevance to
the outcome of the process. The status of the electron as a rotating unit
of space therefore gives it a very special role in the physical activity
of the universe. It should be noted at this time that the electron that
we are now discussing carries no charge. It is a combination of two motions,
a basic vibration and a rotation of the vibrating unit. As we will see
later, an electric charge is an additional motion that As a unit of space, the uncharged electron cannot move
through extension space, since the relation of space to space does not
constitute motion. But under appropriate conditions it can move through
ordinary matter,. inasmuch as this matter is a combination of motions
with a net positive, or time, displacement, and the relation of space
to time does constitute motion. The present-day view of the motion of
electrons in solid matter is that they move through the spaces between
the atoms. The resistance to the electron flow is then considered to be
analogous to friction. Our finding is that the electrons (units of space)
exist The motion of the electrons is negative with respect to the net motion of material objects. This is illustrated in the following diagram: Line X in the diagram is a representation of a scalar magnitude of extension space, as it appears in the conventional reference system. Line A shows the effect of a unit of motion of a material object M through that space. The object that was originally coincident with spatial unit 1 is now coincident with spatial unit 2. Line B shows what happens if the original motion of object M is followed by a unit of electron motion. Just as object M moved through space X in line A, so space X (the electrons) moves through object M in line B. In one unit of motion (line A) object M advances from spatial unit 1 to spatial unit 2. In the following unit of the inverse type of motion (line B) the numbered spatial locations advance one unit relative to object M. This brings M back into coincidence with spatial unit 1, the same result that would have followed if object M had moved backward in the absence of any electron movement. Thus the movement of space (electrons) through matter is equivalent to a negative movement of matter through space. It follows that the voltage differential that causes the electron motion, and the stress in any substance that absorbs the motion, are likewise negative. Directional movement of electrons through matter will
be identified as an The magnitude of the current is measured by the number
of electrons (units of space) per unit of time. Units of space per unit
of time is the definition of speed, hence the electric current is a speed.
From a mathematical standpoint it is immaterial whether a mass is moving
through extension space or space is moving through the mass. Thus in dealing
with the electric current we are dealing with the The basic unit of
current electricity is the unit of quantity. In the natural system it
is the spatial aspect of one electron, which has a speed displacement
of one unit. Quantity, q, is therefore equivalent to space, s. Energy
has the same status in current flow as in the mechanical relations, and
has the space-time dimensions t/s. Energy divided by time is power, 1/s.
A further division by current, which has the dimensions of speed,. s/t,
then produces electromotive force (emf) with the dimensions 1/s x t/s
= t/s The term “electric potential” is commonly used as an alternative to emf, but, for reasons to be discussed later, we will not use “potential” in this sense. Where a more convenient term than emf is appropriate, we will use the term “voltage,” symbol V. Dividing voltage, t/s In dealing with resistance as a property of matter we
will be interested mainly in the With the benefit of the clarification of the space-time dimensions of resistance we can now go back to the empirically determined relations between resistance and other electrical quantities, and verify the consistency of the space-time identifications. Voltage:V = IR = s/t x t Power:P = I Energy:E = I This energy equation demonstrates the equivalence of
the mathematical expressions of the electrical and mechanical phenomena.
Since resistance is mass per unit time, the product of resistance and
time, Rt, is equivalent to mass, m. The current, I, is a speed, v. The
electrical energy expression RtI Instead of using resistance, time, and current, we may put the energy expression into terms of voltage, V (equivalent to IR), and quantity, q, (equivalent to It). The expression for the magnitude of the energy (or work) is then W = Vq. Here we have a definite confirmation of the identification of electric quantity as the equivalent of space. Force, as described in one of the standard physics textbooks, is “an explicitly definable vector quantity that tends to produce a change in the motion of objects.” Electromotive force, or voltage, conforms to this description. It tends to cause motion of the electrons in the direction of the voltage gradient. Energy in general is the product of force and distance. Electrical energy, as Vq, is the product of force and quantity. It follows that electrical quantity is equivalent to distance: the same conclusion that we derived from the nature of the uncharged electron. In conventional scientific thought the status of electrical
energy as one form of energy in general is accepted, as it must be, since
it can be converted to any of the other forms, but the status of electrical,
or electromotive, force as one form of force in general is The early investigators of electrical phenomena recognized that the quantity measured in volts has the characteristics of a force, and they named it accordingly. Contemporary theorists reject this identification because it conflicts with their views as to the nature of the electric current. W. J. Duffin, for instance, gives us a definition of electromotive force (emf), and then says,
Work per unit of space is force. This author simply takes
it for granted that the moving entity, which he calls a charge, is Conventional physical theory does not pretend to give
us any understanding of the nature of either electrical quantity or electric
charge. It simply The most significant weakness of the conventional theory
of the electric current, the theory based on the foregoing assumptions,
as we now see it in the light of the more complete understanding of physical
fundamentals derived from the theory of the universe of motion, is that
it assigns two different, and incompatible, roles to the electrons. These
particles, according to present-day theory, are It should be evident that the theories are calling upon the electrons to perform two different and contradictory functions. They have been assigned the key position in both the theory of atomic structure and the theory of the electric current, without regard for the fact that the properties that they must have in order to perform the functions required by either one of these theories disqualify them for the functions that they are called upon to perform in the other. In the theory of the universe of motion, each of these phenomena involves a different physical entity The unit of atomic structure is a unit of rotational motion, not an electron. It has the quasi-permanent status that is required of an atomic constituent. The electron, without a charge, and without any connection with the atomic structure, is then available as the freely moving unit of the electric current. The fundamental postulate of the Reciprocal System of
theory is that the physical universe is a universe of motion, one in which
all entities and phenomena are motions, combinations of motions, or relations
between motions. In such a universe none of the basic phenomena are unexplainable.
“Unanalyzables,” as Bridgman called them, do not exist. The basic physical
entities and phenomena of the universe of motion–radiation, gravitation,
matter, electricity, magnetism, and so on–can be defined explicitly in
terms of space and time. Unlike conventional physical theory, the Reciprocal
System does not have to leave its basic elements cloaked in metaphysical
mystery. It does not have to exclude them from physical inquiry, in the
manner of the following statement from the
In a universe composed entirely of motion, an electric
charge applied to a physical entity must necessarily be a motion. Thus
the problem faced in the theoretical investigation was not to answer the
question, The similarities are of two general types: (1) some of
the properties of charged particles and electric currents are alike, and
(2) there are observable transitions from one to the other. Identification
of the charged electron as an uncharged electron with an added motion
explains both types of similarities. For instance, a demonstration that
a rapidly moving charge has the same magnetic properties as an electric
current was a major factor in the victory won by the proponents of the
“charge” theory of the electric current many years ago. But our findings
are that the moving entities are electrons, or other The second kind of evidence that has been interpreted as supporting the identity of the static and current electrons is the apparent continuity from the electron of current flow to the charged electron in such processes as electrolysis. Here the explanation is that the electric charge is easily created and easily destroyed. As everyone knows, nothing more than a slight amount of friction is sufficient to generate an electric charge on many surfaces, such as those of present-day synthetic fabrics. It follows that wherever a concentration of energy exists in one of these forms that can be relieved by conversion to the other, the rotational vibration that constitutes a charge is either initiated or terminated in order to permit the type of electron motion that can take place in response to the effective force. It has been possible to follow the prevailing policy, regarding the two different quantities as identical, and utilizing the same units for both, only because the two different usages are entirely separate in most cases. Under these circumstances no error is introduced into the calculations by using the same units, but a clear distinction is necessary in any case where either calculation or theoretical consideration involves quantities of both kinds. As an analogy we might assume that we are undertaking
to set up a system of units in which to express the properties of water.
Let us further assume that we fail to recognize that there is a difference
between the properties of weight and volume, and consequently express
both in cubic centimeters. Such a system is equivalent to using a weight
unit of one gram, and as long as we deal separately with weight and volume,
each in its own context, the fact that the expression “cubic centimeter”
has two entirely different meanings will not result in any difficulties.
However, if we have occasion to deal with both quantities simultaneously,
it is essential to recognize the difference between the two. Dividing
cubic centimeters (weight) by cubic centimeters (volume) does not result
in a pure number, as the calculations seem to indicate; the quotient is
a This dimensional confusion resulting from the lack of distinction between the charged and uncharged electrons has been a source of considerable concern, and some embarrassment to the theoretical physicists. One of its major effects has been to prevent setting up any comprehensive systematic relationship between the dimensions of physical quantities. The failure to find a basis for such a relationship is a clear indication that something is wrong in the dimensional assignments, but instead of recognizing this fact, the current reaction is to sweep the problem under the rug by pretending that it does not exist. As one observer sees the picture:
This is a very common reaction to long years of frustration, one that we encountered frequently in our examination of the subjects treated in Volume I. When the most strenuous efforts by generation after generation of investigators fail to reach a defined objective, there is always a strong temptation to take the stand that the objective is inherently unattainable. “In short,” says Alfred Lande, “if you cannot clarify a problematic situation, declare it to be ‘fundamental,’ then proclaim a corresponding ‘principle’.” 17 So physical science fills up with principles of impotence rather than explanations. In the universe of motion the dimensions of This clarification
of the dimensional relations is accompanied by a determination of the
natural unit magnitudes of the various physical quantities. The system
of units commonly utilized in dealing with electric currents was developed
independently of the mechanical units on an arbitrary basis. In order
to ascertain the relation between this arbitrary system and the natural
system of units it is necessary to measure some one physical quantity
whose magnitude can be identified in the natural system, as was done in
the previous determination of the relations between the natural and conventional
units of space, time, and mass. For this purpose we will use the The magnitude of the electric current is the number
of electrons per unit of time; that is, units of space per unit of time,
or speed. Thus the natural unit of current could be expressed as the natural
unit of speed, 2.99793 x 10 The basic quantities of current electricity and their natural units in electrical terms can be summarized as follows:
Another electrical quantity that should be mentioned
because of the key role that it plays in the present-day mathematical
treatment of magnetism is “current density,” which is defined as “the
quantity of charge passing per second through unit area of a plane normal
to the line of flow.” This is a strange quantity, quite unlike any physical
quantity that has previously been discussed in the pages of this and the
preceding volume, in that it is not a relation The fundamental laws of current electricity known to present-day science–such as Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Laws, and their derivatives–are empirical generalizations, and their application is not affected by the clarification of tne essential nature of the electric current. The substance of these laws, and the relevant details, are adequately covered in existing scientific and technical literature. In conformity with the general plan of this work, as set forth earlier, these subjects will not be included in our presentation. This is an appropriate time to make some comments about
the concept of “natural units.” There is no ambiguity in this concept,
so far as the basic units of motion are concerned. The same is true, in
general, of the units of the simple scalar quantities, although some questions
do arise. For example, the unit of space in the region inside unit distance,
the time region, as we are calling it, is inherently just as large as
the unit of space in the region outside unit distance, but The more complex physical quantities are subject to still more variability in the unit magnitudes, because these quantities are combinations of the simpler quantities, and the combination may take place in different ways and under different conditions. For instance, as we saw in our examination of the units of mass in Volume I, there are several different manifestations of mass, each of which involves a different combination of natural units and therefore has a natural unit of its own. In this case, the primary cause of variability is the existence of a secondary mass component that is related to the primary mass by the inter-regional ratio, or a modification thereof, but some additional factors introduce further varability, as indicated in the earlier discussion. |